Unit Standards in Effect 2008

 


Overview

Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework[1] establishes the shared vision for a unit’s efforts in preparing educators to work in P–12 schools. It provides direction for programs, courses, teaching, candidate performance, scholarship, service, and unit accountability. The conceptual framework is knowledge-based, articulated, shared, coherent, consistent with the unit and/or institutional mission, and continuously evaluated. The conceptual framework provides the bases that describe the unit’s intellectual philosophy and institutional standards, which distinguish graduates of one institution from those of another.

Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions

Candidates [2] preparing to work in schools as teachers or other school professionals know and demonstrate the content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and skills, pedagogical and professional knowledge and skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students[3] learn. Assessments indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional[4] standards.

Standard 2: Assessment System and Unit Evaluation

The unit has an assessment system that collects and analyzes data on applicant qualifications, candidate and graduate performance, and unit operations to evaluate and improve the performance of candidates, the unit, and its programs.

Standard 3: Field Experiences and Clinical Practice

The unit and its school partners design, implement, and evaluate field experiences and clinical practice so that teacher candidates and other school professionals develop and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn.

Standard 4: Diversity

The unit designs, implements, and evaluates curriculum and provides experiences for candidates to acquire and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Assessments indicate that candidates can demonstrate and apply proficiencies related to diversity. Experiences provided for candidates include working with diverse populations, including higher education and P–12 school faculty, candidates, and students in P–12 schools.

Standard 5: Faculty Qualifications, Performance, and Development

Faculty are qualified and model best professional practices in scholarship, service, and teaching, including the assessment of their own effectiveness as related to candidate performance.
They also collaborate with colleagues in the disciplines and schools. The unit systematically evaluates faculty performance and facilitates professional development.

Standard 6: Unit Governance and Resources

The unit has the leadership, authority, budget, personnel, facilities, and resources, including information technology resources, for the preparation of candidates to meet professional, state, and institutional standards.

The following pages provide the reader information about the meaning of the conceptual framework and the six NCATE standards. Rubrics that accompany each standard address the critical elements of the standard and describe different levels of performance required to meet the standard. The supporting explanations include a rationale for the standard and additional explanation of each standard’s meaning.

Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework[5] establishes the shared vision for a unit’s efforts in preparing educators to work in P–12 schools. It provides direction for programs, courses, teaching, candidate performance, scholarship, service, and unit accountability. The conceptual framework is knowledge-based, articulated, shared, coherent, consistent with the unit and/or institutional mission, and continuously evaluated. The conceptual framework provides the bases that describe the unit’s intellectual philosophy and institutional standards,
which distinguish graduates of one institution from those of another.

Faculty members in the unit are expected to collaborate with members of their professional community in developing a conceptual framework that establishes the vision for the unit and its programs. The conceptual framework provides the basis for coherence among curriculum, instruction, field experiences, clinical practice, assessment and evaluation. It makes the unit’s professional commitments and professional dispositions explicit. It reflects the unit’s commitment to diversity and the preparation of educators who help all students learn. It reflects the unit’s commitment to the integration of technology to enhance candidate and student learning. The conceptual framework also aligns the professional and state standards with candidate proficiencies expected by the unit and programs for the preparation of educators.

The conceptual framework includes the following aligned structural elements:

  • vision and mission of the institution and unit;
  • philosophy, purposes, goals/institutional standards of the unit;
  • knowledge bases, including theories, research, the wisdom of practice, and educational policies that drive the work of the unit;
  • candidate proficiencies related to expected knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions,
    including proficiencies associated with diversity and technology, that are aligned with the expectations in professional, state, and institutional standards; and a
  • summarized description of the unit’s assessment system.

Each unit seeking accreditation for the first time is required to submit its conceptual framework as a precondition for establishing eligibility for NCATE accreditation. In addition, it will include an overview of the conceptual framework in the introductory section of the institutional report.

An institution preparing for a continuing visit will include an overview of its conceptual framework in the introductory section of the continuing report. This overview must include a description of the framework, its development, and changes since the previous visit, including the relationship of the conceptual framework revisions to updated standards and assessments of the unit, profession, or state. The unit will also report evaluations of the conceptual framework and resulting changes in the NCATE annual report.

Board of Examiners teams will look for evidence of the conceptual framework and report their findings in (1) the introductory section of the team report and (2) responses to standards throughout the team report.

Standard 1: Candidate[6] Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions

Candidates preparing to work in schools as teachers or other school professionals know and demonstrate the content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and skills, pedagogical and professional knowledge and skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students[7] learn. Assessments indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional standards.

1a. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHER CANDIDATES
(Initial and Advanced Preparation of Teachers)

UNACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates have inadequate knowledge of content that they plan to teach and are unable to give examples of important principles and concepts delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Fewer than 80 percent of the unit’s program completers pass the content examinations in states that require examinations for licensure. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers do not have an in-depth knowledge of the content that they teach.

ACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates know the content that they plan to teach and can explain important principles and concepts delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Eighty percent or more of the unit’s program completers pass the content examinations in states that require examinations for licensure. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have an in-depth knowledge of the content that they teach.

TARGET
Teacher candidates have in-depth knowledge of the content that they plan to teach as described in professional, state, and institutional standards. They demonstrate their knowledge through inquiry, critical analysis, and synthesis of the subject. All program completers pass the content examinations in states that require examinations for licensure. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers are recognized experts in the content that they teach.

1b. PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHER CANDIDATES
(Initial and Advanced Preparation of Teachers)

UNACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates do not understand the relationship of content and content-specific pedagogy delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards in a way that helps them develop learning experiences that integrate technology and build on students’ cultural backgrounds and knowledge of content so that students learn. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have a limited understanding of the relationship between content and content-specific pedagogy; they are unable to explain the linkages between theory and practice. They are not able to select or use a broad range of instructional strategies
that promote student learning.

ACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates understand the relationship of content and content- specific pedagogy delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They have a broad knowledge of instructional strategies that draws upon content and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards to help all students learn. They facilitate student learning of the content through presentation of the content in clear and meaningful ways and through the integration of technology. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the content of their field and of the theories related to pedagogy and learning. They are able to select and use a broad range of instructional strategies and technologies that promote student learning and are able to clearly explain the choices they make in their practice.

TARGET
Teacher candidates reflect a thorough understanding of the relationship of content and content-specific pedagogy delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They have in-depth understanding of the content that they plan to teach and are able to provide multiple explanations and instructional strategies so that all students learn. They present the content to students in challenging, clear, and compelling ways, using real-world contexts and integrating technology appropriately. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have expertise in pedagogical content knowledge and share their expertise through leadership and mentoring roles in their schools and communities. They understand and address student preconceptions that hinder learning. They are able to critique research and theories related to pedagogy and learning. They are able to select and develop instructional strategies and technologies, based on research and experience, that help all students learn.

1c. PROFESSIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR TEACHER CANDIDATES
(Initial and Advanced Preparation of Teachers)

UNACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates have not mastered professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They lack knowledge of school, family, and community contexts, and they are unable to develop learning experiences that draw on students’ prior experience. They do not reflect on their work, nor do they use current research to inform their practice. They are unable to explain major schools of thought about schooling, teaching, and learning. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers do not reflect on their practice and cannot recognize their strengths and areas of needed improvement. They do not engage in professional development. They do not keep abreast of current research and policies on schooling, teaching, learning, and best practices. They are not engaged with the professional community to develop meaningful learning experiences.

ACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates can apply the professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards to facilitate learning. They consider the school, family, and community contexts in which they work and the prior experience of students to develop meaningful learning experiences. They reflect on their practice. They know major schools of thought about schooling, teaching, and learning. They are able to analyze educational research findings and incorporate new information into their practice as appropriate. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers reflect on their practice and are able to identify their strengths and areas of needed improvement. They engage in professional activities. They have a thorough understanding of the school, family, and community contexts in which they work, and they collaborate with the professional community to create meaningful learning experiences for all students. They are aware of current research and policies related to schooling, teaching, learning, and best practices. They are able to analyze educational research and policies and can explain the implications for their own practice and for the profession.

TARGET
Teacher candidates reflect a thorough understanding of professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They develop meaningful learning experiences to facilitate learning for all students. They reflect on their practice and make necessary adjustments to enhance student learning. They know how students learn and how to make ideas accessible to them. They consider school, family, and community contexts in connecting concepts to students’ prior experience and applying the ideas to real-world issues. Candidates in advanced programs
for teachers develop expertise in certain aspects of professional and pedagogical knowledge and contribute to the dialogue based on their research and experiences. They take on leadership roles in the professional community and collaborate with colleagues to contribute to school improvement and renewal.

1d. STUDENT LEARNING FOR TEACHER CANDIDATES
(Initial and Advanced Preparation of Teachers)

UNACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates cannot accurately assess student learning or develop learning experiences based on students’ developmental levels or prior experience. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have a limited understanding of the major concepts and theories related to assessing student learning. They do not use classroom performance data to make decisions about teaching strategies. They do not use community resources to support student learning.

ACCEPTABLE
Teacher candidates focus on student learning. Teacher candidates assess and analyze student learning, make appropriate adjustments to instruction, and monitor student progress. They are able to develop and implement meaningful learning experiences for students based on their developmental levels and prior experience. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have a thorough understanding of the major concepts and theories related to assessing student learning and regularly apply these in their practice. They analyze student, classroom, and school performance data and make data-driven decisions about strategies for teaching and learning so that all students learn. They are aware of and utilize school and community resources that support student learning.

TARGET
Teacher candidates focus on student learning and study the effects of their work. They assess and analyze student learning, make appropriate adjustments to instruction, monitor student learning, and have a positive effect on learning for all students. Candidates in advanced programs for teachers have a thorough understanding of assessment. They analyze student, classroom, and school performance data and make data-driven decisions about strategies for teaching and learning so that all students learn. They collaborate with other professionals to identify and design strategies and interventions that support student learning.

1e. KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR OTHER SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS[8]

UNACCEPTABLE
Candidates for other professional school roles have not mastered the knowledge that undergirds their fields and is delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They are not able to use data, research or technology. They do not understand the cultural contexts of the school(s) in which they provide professional services. Fewer than 80 percent of the unit’s program completers pass the academic content examinations in states that require such examinations for licensure.

ACCEPTABLE
Candidates for other professional school roles have an adequate understanding of the knowledge expected in their fields and delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards.
They know their students, families, and communities; use data and current research to inform their practices; use technology in their practices; and support student learning through their professional services. Eighty percent or more of the unit’s program completers pass the academic content examinations in states that require such examinations for licensure.

TARGET
Candidates for other professional school roles have an in-depth understanding of knowledge in their fields as delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards and demonstrated through inquiry, critical analysis, and synthesis. They collect and analyze data related to their work, reflect on their practice, and use research and technology to support and improve student learning. All program completers pass the academic content examinations in states that require such examinations for licensure.

1f. STUDENT LEARNING FOR OTHER SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS

UNACCEPTABLE
Candidates for other professional school roles cannot facilitate student learning as they carry out their specialized roles in schools. They are unable to create positive environments for student learning appropriate to their responsibilities in schools. They do not have an understanding of the diversity and policy contexts within which they work.

ACCEPTABLE
Candidates for other professional school roles are able to create positive environments for student learning. They understand and build upon the developmental levels of students with whom they work; the diversity of students, families, and communities; and the policy contexts within which they work.

TARGET
Candidates for other professional school roles critique and are able to reflect on their work within the context of student learning. They establish educational environments that support student learning, collect
and analyze data related to student learning, and apply strategies for improving student learning within their own jobs and schools.

1g. PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS FOR ALL CANDIDATES

UNACCEPTABLE
Candidates are not familiar with professional dispositions delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Candidates do not demonstrate classroom behaviors that are consistent with the ideal of fairness and the belief that all students can learn. They do not model these professional dispositions in their work with students, families, colleagues, and communities.

ACCEPTABLE
Candidates are familiar with the professional dispositions delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Candidates demonstrate classroom behaviors that are consistent with the ideal of fairness and the belief that all students can learn. Their work with students, families, colleagues and communities reflects these professional dispositions.

TARGET
Candidates work with students, families, colleagues, and communities in ways that reflect the professional dispositions expected of professional educators as delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Candidates demonstrate classroom behaviors that create caring and supportive learning environments and encourage self-directed learning by all students. Candidates recognize when their own professional dispositions may need to be adjusted and are able to develop plans to do so.

 

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

The knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions outlined in this standard are based on current research in teaching and learning and on best practices in professional education. Each element reflects an important component of the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions that educators need to develop in order to help all students learn. The knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions in this standard should be reflected in the unit’s conceptual framework and assessed as part of the unit’s assessment system. The data from the assessment system should be used to demonstrate candidate learning of the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions stated herein.

Teachers must have sufficient knowledge of content to help all students meet standards for P–12 education. The guiding principle of the teaching profession is that student learning is the goal of teaching. NCATE’s Standard 1 reinforces the importance of this goal by requiring that teacher candidates know their content or subject matter, can teach effectively, and can help all students learn. All school professionals
are expected to carry out their work in ways that are supportive of student learning.

Educator licensure standards adopted by most states require that educators demonstrate knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions that enable them to address the needs of all learners. Therefore, candidates preparing to teach or work as other professional educators in P–12 schools are expected to demonstrate the candidate learning proficiencies identified in the unit’s conceptual framework, in the standards of national professional organizations which should be aligned with standards for P–12 students, and in state licensing standards.

To help institutions better prepare teacher candidates to meet state licensing requirements, NCATE has aligned its unit and program standards with the principles of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). First and foremost, NCATE and INTASC expect teacher candidates to know the content of their disciplines, including their central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures.

Teacher candidates are expected to meet professional standards for the subjects that they plan to teach as these have been defined in standards for students in P–12 schools and standards for the preparation of teachers. Candidates are expected to meet professional standards of other national accrediting organizations (e.g., the National Association of Schools of Music and the National Association of Schools of Art and Design) or NCATE’s professional standards for teachers of early childhood education; elementary education; middle-level education; special education; gifted education; environmental education; and secondary education (including English/language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, computer science, technology education, health, physical education, foreign languages, and English as a second language[9]).

As part of the program review process, institutions must submit candidate assessments, scoring guides, performance data, and other program documents that respond to professional standards for national and/or state review. The program review process is an important component of NCATE accreditation. Information from the program review process should be used to address the elements in Standard 1 on content knowledge, professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills, pedagogical content knowledge, and student learning.

NCATE expects teacher candidates to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions[10] to provide learning opportunities supporting students’ intellectual, social, and personal development. Teacher candidates are able to create instructional opportunities adapted to diverse learners. They encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. They are able to create learning environments encouraging positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. Teacher candidates foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom. They plan instruction based upon knowledge of content, students, families, the community, and curriculum goals. Teacher candidates evaluate students’ academic achievement as well as their social and physical development and use the results to maximize students’ motivation and learning. They are able to reflect on and continually evaluate the effects of choices and actions on others and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally. They also are able to foster relationships with school colleagues, parents and families, and agencies in the larger community to support students’ learning and well-being.

Candidates preparing to work in schools as teachers or other school professionals need a sound professional knowledge base to understand learning and the context of schools, families, and communities. They understand and are able to apply knowledge related to the social, historical, and philosophical foundations of education,[11] professional ethics, law, and policy. They know the ways children and adolescents learn and develop, including their cognitive and affective development and the relationship of these to learning. They understand language acquisition; cultural influences on learning; exceptionalities;[12] diversity of student populations, families, and communities; and inclusion and equity in classrooms and schools. They are able to appropriately and effectively integrate technology and information literacy in instruction to support student learning. They understand the importance of using research in teaching and other professional roles and know the roles and responsibilities of the education profession.

Candidates for all professional education roles develop and model professional dispositions that are expected of educators. The unit includes as professional dispositions the ideal of fairness and the belief that all students can learn. Based on its mission, the unit may determine additional professional dispositions it wants candidates to develop. The unit articulates professional dispositions as part of its conceptual framework. The unit systematically assesses the development of appropriate professional dispositions by candidates.[13] Professional dispositions are not assessed directly; instead the unit assesses dispositions based on observable behavior in educational settings.

Candidates for all professional education roles are expected to demonstrate the ability to affect student learning. Teachers and teacher candidates have student learning as the focus of their work. They are able to develop and administer appropriate assessments and to use assessments as formative and summative tools. They are able to create meaningful learning experiences by judging prior student knowledge, planning and implementing lessons, assessing student learning, reflecting on student learning, and making adjustments to their teaching to improve learning. Other school professionals are able to create and maintain positive
environments, as appropriate to their professional responsibilities, which support student learning in educational settings.

Throughout the program, teacher candidates develop the knowledge bases for analyzing student learning and practice by collecting data and assessing student learning through their work with students. Student learning should be demonstrated directly by all teacher candidates during clinical practice.

Experienced teachers in graduate programs build upon and extend their knowledge and experiences to improve their own teaching and student learning in classrooms. They further develop their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions to meet the propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) for the advanced certification of teachers. These candidates demonstrate their commitment to students, skills to manage and monitor student learning, capacity to think systematically about their practice, ability to learn from experience, and involvement as members of learning communities.[14]

Candidates preparing to work in schools in professional roles other than teaching demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to meet professional,[15] state, and institutional standards reflected in the unit’s conceptual framework. Candidates in programs for other school professionals should meet professional standards designed for programs preparing:

  • educational technology specialists
  • instructional technology specialists
  • reading specialists/literacy coaches
  • school leaders, including principals, curriculum and instruction specialists, and superintendents
  • school library media specialists
  • school psychologists
  • special education administrators, educational diagnosticians, and special education technology specialists
  • technology facilitators
  • technology leaders
  • other school professionals

Candidates in these graduate programs develop the ability to apply research and research methods. They also develop knowledge of learning, the social and cultural context in which learning takes place, and practices that support learning in their professional roles. Candidates might assess the school environment by collecting and analyzing data on student learning as it relates to their professional roles and developing positive environments supportive of student learning. Institutions must submit program documentation, including candidate assessments, scoring guides, and performance data that responds to professional standards for national and/or state review prior to and during the on-site visit.

This standard includes expectations for the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions of candidates in initial teacher preparation and advanced level programs. Initial teacher preparation programs include all programs that prepare individuals for their first license in teaching. These programs can be offered at the undergraduate or graduate levels. They include five-year programs, master’s programs, and postbaccalaureate programs that prepare individuals for their first license in teaching.

Advanced programs include programs for licensed teachers continuing their education as well as programs for other school professionals. Advanced programs include programs for teachers who are preparing at the graduate level for a second license in a field different from the field in which they have their first license; programs for teachers who are seeking a master’s degree in the field in which they teach; and programs not tied to licensure, such as programs in curriculum and instruction. In addition, advanced programs include programs for other school professionals. Examples of these are programs in school counseling, school psychology, educational administration, and reading specialization. All advanced level programs are taught at the graduate level. In instances where there is uncertainty about the program level, institutions should seek assistance from NCATE's website or contact the NCATE office for clarification.

Standard 2: Assessment System and Unit Evaluation

The unit has an assessment system that collects and analyzes data on applicant qualifications, candidate and graduate performance, and unit operations to evaluate and improve the performance of candidates, the unit, and its programs.

2a. ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

UNACCEPTABLE
The unit has not involved its professional community in the development of its assessment system. The unit’s assessment system is limited in its capacity to monitor candidate performance, unit operations, and programs. The assessment system does not reflect professional, state, and institutional standards. Decisions about continuation in and completion of programs are based on a single or few assessments. The unit has not examined bias in its assessments, nor made an effort to establish fairness, accuracy, and consistency of its assessment procedures and unit operations.

ACCEPTABLE
The unit has an assessment system that reflects the conceptual framework and professional and state standards and is regularly evaluated by its professional community. The unit’s system includes comprehensive and integrated assessment and evaluation measures to monitor candidate performance and manage and improve the unit’s operations and programs. Decisions about candidate performance are based on multiple assessments at admission into programs, appropriate transition points, and program completion. The unit has taken effective steps to eliminate bias in assessments and is working to establish the fairness, accuracy, and consistency of its assessment procedures and unit operations.

TARGET
The unit, with the involvement of its professional community, is regularly evaluating the capacity and effectiveness of its assessment system, which reflects the conceptual framework and incorporates candidate proficiencies outlined in professional and state standards. The unit regularly examines the validity and utility of the data produced through assessments and makes modifications to keep abreast of changes in assessment technology and in professional standards. Decisions about candidate performance are based on multiple assessments made at multiple points before program completion and in practice after completion of programs. Data show a strong relationship of performance assessments to candidate success throughout their programs and later in classrooms or schools. The unit conducts thorough studies to establish fairness, accuracy, and consistency of its assessment procedures and unit operations. It also makes changes in its practices consistent with the results of these studies.

2b. DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND EVALUATION

UNACCEPTABLE
The unit does not regularly and comprehensively gather, aggregate, summarize, and analyze assessment and evaluation information on the unit’s operations, its programs, or candidates. The unit cannot disaggregate candidate assessment data when candidates are in alternate route, off-campus, and distance learning programs. The unit does not maintain a record of formal candidate complaints or document the resolution of complaints. The unit does not use appropriate information technologies to maintain its assessment system. The unit does not use multiple assessments from internal and external sources to collect data on applicant qualifications, candidate proficiencies, graduates, unit operations, and program quality.

ACCEPTABLE
The unit maintains an assessment system that provides regular and comprehensive information on applicant qualifications, candidate proficiencies, competence of graduates, unit operations, and program quality. Using multiple assessments from internal and external sources, the unit collects data from applicants, candidates, recent graduates, faculty, and other members of the professional community. Candidate assessment data are regularly and systematically collected, compiled, aggregated, summarized, and analyzed to improve candidate performance, program quality, and unit operations. The unit disaggregates
candidate assessment data when candidates are in alternate route, off-campus, and distance learning programs. The unit maintains records of formal candidate complaints and documentation of their resolution. The unit maintains its assessment system through the use of information technologies appropriate to the size of the unit and institution.

TARGET
The unit's assessment system provides regular and comprehensive data on program quality, unit operations, and candidate performance at each stage of its programs, extending into the first years of completers’ practice. Assessment data from candidates, graduates, faculty, and other members of the professional community are based on multiple assessments from both internal and external sources that are systematically collected as candidates progress through programs. These data are disaggregated by program when candidates are in alternate route, off-campus, and distance learning programs. These data are regularly and systematically compiled, aggregated, summarized, analyzed, and reported publicly for the purpose of improving candidate performance, program quality, and unit operations. The unit has a system for effectively maintaining records of formal candidate complaints and their resolution. The unit is developing and testing different information technologies to improve its assessment system.

2c. USE OF DATA FOR PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT

UNACCEPTABLE
The unit makes limited or no use of data collected, including candidate and graduate performance information, to evaluate the efficacy of its courses, programs, and clinical experiences. The unit fails to make changes in its courses, programs, and clinical experiences when evaluations indicate that modifications would strengthen candidate preparation to meet professional, state, and institutional standards. Faculty do not have access to candidate assessment data and/or data systems. Candidates and faculty are not regularly provided formative feedback based on the unit’s performance assessments.

ACCEPTABLE
The unit regularly and systematically uses data, including candidate and graduate performance information, to evaluate the efficacy of its courses, programs, and clinical experiences. The unit analyzes program evaluation and performance assessment data to initiate changes in programs and unit operations. Faculty have access to candidate assessment data and/or data systems. Candidate assessment data are regularly shared with candidates and faculty to help them reflect on and improve their performance and programs.

TARGET
The unit has fully developed evaluations and continuously searches for stronger relationships in the evaluations, revising both the underlying data systems and analytic techniques as necessary. The unit not only makes changes based on the data, but also systematically studies the effects of any changes to assure that programs are strengthened without adverse consequences. Candidates and faculty review data on their performance regularly and develop plans for improvement based on the data.

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

The unit has a professional responsibility to ensure that its programs and graduates are of the highest quality. The unit manages the assessment system, which includes both program and unit data. Units conduct
assessments at the unit or program level or in a combination of the two. Meeting this responsibility requires the systematic gathering, summarizing, and evaluation of data and using the data to strengthen candidate performance, the unit, and its programs. Units are expected to use information technologies to assist in data management. The unit’s assessment system should examine the (1) alignment of instruction
and curriculum with professional, state, and institutional standards; (2) efficacy of courses, field experiences, and programs, and (3) candidates’ attainment of content knowledge and demonstration of teaching that leads to student learning or other work that supports student learning. It should include the assessment of candidates’ content knowledge, pedagogical and/or professional knowledge and skills, professional dispositions, and their effects on student learning as outlined in professional, state, and institutional standards and identified in the unit’s conceptual framework. The assessment system should be based on the assessments and scoring guides that are the foundation for NCATE’s program review process (i.e., licensing exam scores and assessments of content knowledge, planning, clinical practice, and student learning).

Preparation of professional school personnel is a dynamic and complex enterprise, and one that requires units to plan and evaluate on a continuing basis. Program review and refinement are needed, over time, to ensure quality. Candidate assessments and unit evaluations must be purposeful, evolving from the unit’s conceptual framework and program goals. They must be comprehensive, including measures related to faculty, the curriculum, and instruction, as well as what candidates know and can do. The measures themselves must be of a quality that can actually inform the important aspects of faculty, curriculum, instruction, and candidate performance.

Fairness, consistency, accuracy, and avoidance of bias in the assessment system must be considered, especially when the assessments are used to determine whether candidates continue in or complete programs. Attention must be paid to the potential adverse impact of the assessments on a diverse pool of teacher candidates. In addition, the unit assessments and evaluations must consider how to provide and use information constructively from various sources—the unit, field experiences, clinical sites, general education courses, content courses, faculty, candidates, graduates, and employers. Technology should play an increasingly important role in data gathering and analysis, as well as more broadly in unit planning and evaluation.

Assessment systems include plans and timelines for data collection and analysis related to candidates and unit operations. Assessment systems usually have the following features:

  • Unit faculty collaborate with members of the professional community to implement and evaluate the system.
  • Professional, state, and institutional standards are key reference points for candidate assessments.
  • The unit embeds assessments in programs, conducts them on a continuing basis for both formative and summative purposes, and provides candidates with ongoing feedback.
  • The unit uses multiple indicators (e.g., 3.0 GPA, mastery of basic skills, general education knowledge, content mastery, and life and work experiences) to identify candidates with potential to become successful teachers or assume other professional roles in schools at the point of entry into programs (as a freshman, junior, or postbaccalaureate candidate).
  • The unit has multiple decision points, (e.g., at entry, prior to clinical practice, and at program completion).
  • The unit administers multiple assessments in a variety of forms and aligns them with candidate proficiencies. These may come from end-of-course evaluations, written essays, or topical papers, as well as from tasks used for instructional purposes (such as projects, journals, observations by faculty, comments by cooperating teachers, or videotapes) and from activities associated with teaching (such as lesson planning, identifying student readiness for instruction, creating appropriate assessments, reflecting on results of instruction with students, or communicating with parents, families, and school communities).
  • The unit uses information available from external sources such as state licensing exams, evaluations during an induction or mentoring year, employer reports, follow-up studies, and state program reviews.
  • The unit has procedures to ensure credibility of assessments: fairness, consistency, accuracy, and avoidance of bias.
  • The unit establishes scoring guides, which may be rubrics, for determining levels of candidate accomplishment and completion of their programs.
  • The unit uses results from candidate assessments to evaluate and make improvements in the unit, and its programs, courses, teaching, and field and clinical experiences.
  • In the evaluation of unit operations and programs, the unit collects, analyzes, and uses a broad array of information and data from course evaluations and evaluations of clinical practice, faculty, admissions
    process, advising system, school partnerships, program quality, unit governance, etc.

Standard 3: Field Experiences and Clinical Practice

The unit and its school partners design, implement, and evaluate field experiences and clinical practice so that teacher candidates and other school professionals develop and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn.

3a. COLLABORATION BETWEEN UNIT AND SCHOOL PARTNERS

UNACCEPTABLE

The unit makes decisions about the nature and assignment of field experiences and clinical practice independently of the schools or other agencies hosting them. The unit’s school partners do not participate in the design, delivery, or evaluation of field experiences or clinical practice. Decisions about the specific placement of candidates in field experiences and clinical practices are solely the responsibility of the schools.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit, its school partners, and other members of the professional community design, deliver, and evaluate field experiences and clinical practice to help candidates develop their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions. The unit and its school partners jointly determine the specific placement of student teachers and interns for other professional roles to provide appropriate learning experiences. The school and unit share expertise to support candidates’ learning in field experiences and clinical practice.

TARGET

Both unit and school-based faculty are involved in designing, implementing, and evaluating the unit’s conceptual framework and the school program; they each participate in the unit’s and the school partners’ professional development activities and instructional programs for candidates and for children. The unit and its school partners share expertise and integrate resources to support candidate learning. They jointly determine the specific placements of student teachers and interns for other professional roles to maximize the learning experience for candidates and P–12 students.

3.b DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION OF FIELD EXPERIENCES AND CLINICAL PRACTICE

UNACCEPTABLE

Candidates do not meet entry and exit criteria for clinical practice. Field experiences are not linked to the development of proficiencies delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Field experiences and clinical practice do not reflect the unit’s conceptual framework and do not help candidates develop the competencies delineated in standards. Clinical practice does not provide opportunities to use information technology to support teaching and learning. Candidate coursework is not fully integrated into the clinical setting. Clinical practice is not long or intensive enough for candidates to develop or demonstrate their ability to take full responsibility for the roles for which they are preparing.

Criteria for school faculty are not known. School faculty do not demonstrate the knowledge and skills expected of accomplished school professionals. Clinical faculty do not provide regular and continuing support for student teachers and other interns.

Candidates in advanced programs for teachers do not participate in field experiences that require them to apply course work in classroom settings, analyze P–12 student learning, or reflect on their practice. Candidates in programs for other school professionals do not participate in field experiences and clinical practice that require them to engage in structured activities related to the roles for which they are preparing. The field experiences and clinical practice for these programs do not involve the analysis of data, the use of technology and current research, or the application of knowledge related to students, families, and communities.

ACCEPTABLE

Candidates meet entry and exit criteria for clinical practice. Field experiences facilitate candidates’ development as professional educators by providing opportunities for candidates to observe in schools and other agencies, tutor students, participate in education-related community events, interact with families of students, attend school board meetings, and assist teachers or other school professionals prior to clinical practice. Both field experiences and clinical practice reflect the unit’s conceptual framework and help candidates continue to develop the content, professional, and pedagogical knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions delineated in standards. They allow candidates to participate as teachers or other professional educators, as well as learners in the school setting.

Clinical practice allows candidates to use information technology to support teaching and learning. Clinical practice is sufficiently extensive and intensive for candidates to develop and demonstrate proficiencies in the professional roles for which they are preparing.

Criteria for school faculty are clear and known to all of the involved parties. School faculty are accomplished professionals who are prepared for their roles as mentors and supervisors.

Clinical faculty, which includes both higher education and P–12 school faculty, use multiple measures and multiple assessments to evaluate candidate skills, knowledge, and professional dispositions
in relation to professional, state, and institutional standards. Clinical faculty provide regular and continuing support for student teachers and interns in conventional and distance learning programs through such processes as observation, conferencing, group discussion, email, and the use of other technology.

Candidates in advanced programs for teachers participate in field experiences that require them to apply course work in classroom settings, analyze P–12 student learning, and reflect on their practice in the context of theories on teaching and learning. Candidates in programs for other school professionals participate in field experiences and clinical practice that require them to engage in structured activities related to the roles for which they are preparing. These activities involve the analysis of data, the use of technology and current research, and the application of knowledge related to students, families, and communities.

TARGET

Field experiences allow candidates to apply and reflect on their content, professional, and pedagogical knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions in a variety of settings with students and adults. Both field experiences and clinical practice extend the unit’s conceptual framework into practice through modeling by clinical faculty and well designed opportunities to learn through doing. During clinical practice, candidate learning is integrated into the school program and into teaching practice. Candidates observe and are observed by others.They interact with teachers, families of students, administrators, college or university supervisors, and other interns about their practice regularly and continually. They reflect on and can justify their own practice. Candidates are members of instructional teams in the school and are active participants in professional decisions. They are involved in a variety of school-based activities directed at the improvement of teaching and learning, such as collaborative projects with peers, using information technology, and engaging in service learning.

Candidates in advanced programs for teachers participate in field experiences that require them to critique and synthesize educational theory related to classroom practice based on their own applied research. Candidates in programs for other school professionals participate in field experiences and clinical practice that require them to design, implement, and evaluate projects related to the roles for which they are preparing. These projects are theoretically based, involve the use of research and technology, and have real-world application in the candidates’ field placement setting.

3c. CANDIDATES’ DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS TO HELP ALL STUDENTS LEARN

UNACCEPTABLE

Assessments before admission to and used during clinical practice are not linked to candidate competencies delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Assessments do not examine candidates’ effect on student learning. Assessments of candidate performance are not conducted jointly by candidates and clinical faculty. Feedback and coaching in field experiences and clinical practice are not evident. Field experiences and clinical practice do not provide opportunities for candidates to develop and demonstrate knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all students learn. Candidates do not work with students with exceptionalities or with students from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic groups in their field experiences or clinical practice.

ACCEPTABLE

Candidates demonstrate mastery of content areas and pedagogical and professional knowledge before admission to and during clinical practice. Assessments used in clinical practice indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional standards identified in the unit’s conceptual framework and affect student learning. Multiple assessment strategies are used to evaluate candidates’ performance and impact on student learning. Candidates and clinical faculty jointly conduct assessments of candidate performance throughout clinical practice. Both field experiences and clinical practice allow time for reflection and include feedback from peers and clinical faculty. Candidates and clinical faculty systematically examine results related to P–12 learning. They begin a process of continuous assessment, reflection, and action directed at supporting P–12 student learning. Candidates collect data on student learning, analyze them, reflect on their work, and develop strategies for improving learning.

Field experiences and clinical practice provide opportunities for candidates to develop and demonstrate knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all students learn. All candidates participate in field experiences or clinical practice that include students with exceptionalities and students from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic groups.

TARGET

Candidates work collaboratively with other candidates and clinical faculty to critique and reflect on each others’ practice and their effects on student learning with the goal of improving practice. Field experiences and clinical practice facilitate candidates’ exploration of their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions related to all students. Candidates develop and demonstrate proficiencies that support learning by all students as shown in their work with students with exceptionalities and those from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic groups in classrooms and schools.

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

Field experiences and clinical practice are integral program components for the initial and advanced preparation of teacher candidates and candidates for other professional school roles. They provide the opportunity for candidates to develop the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions in the unit’s conceptual framework in a variety of settings appropriate to the content and level of their program. Designed and sequenced well, field experiences and clinical practice help candidates develop the competence necessary to begin or continue careers as teachers or other school professionals. Student teaching or an internship is the culminating experience for teacher candidates at the baccalaureate level. Internships at the postbaccalaureate or master’s level are often integrated with coursework throughout the program. Candidates preparing for new roles such as special education teachers or principals or school psychologists at the graduate level are expected by their profession to complete internships as part of their preparation programs.

Licensed teachers who are continuing their education in advanced programs are expected to complete structured field experiences in settings that (1) deepen their understanding of the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions that foster student learning and (2) broaden their ability to apply this knowledge and these skills and professional dispositions so that they are able to help all students learn. These structured field experiences can take place in multiple settings such as neighboring schools or school districts, day care centers and after-school programs, alternate youth centers, or in the schools and classrooms
in which the candidates work.

Candidates preparing for other professional roles in schools are also expected to complete field experiences and clinical practice. The field experiences should introduce candidates to the various responsibilities of the roles for which they are preparing and help candidates meet expectations in the standards of the respective professional organizations. Both field experiences and clinical practice for these candidates can take place in settings such as neighboring schools or school districts, day care centers and after-school programs, alternate youth centers, or in the schools and classrooms in which the candidates work. The clinical experience should allow candidates to assume the roles for which they are preparing under the supervision of clinical faculty.

Field experiences and clinical practice are characterized by collaboration, accountability, and an environment and practices associated with professional learning. Field experiences represent a variety of early and ongoing school-based opportunities in which candidates may observe, assist, tutor, instruct, participate in service learning projects, or conduct applied research. Clinical practice includes student teaching and internships that provide candidates with experiences that allow for full immersion in the learning community so that candidates are able to demonstrate proficiencies in the professional roles for which they are preparing. Clinical practice provides opportunities for candidates to interact with students’ families and communities in ways that support student learning. Clinical practice provides for candidates’ use of information technology to support teaching, learning, and other professional responsibilities.

The unit and school partners collaboratively design and implement field experiences and clinical practice,including the assessment of candidate performance. School and university faculty share the responsibility for candidate learning. The partners share and integrate resources and expertise to create roles and structures that support and create opportunities for candidates to learn. The partners select and prepare clinical faculty to mentor and supervise teacher candidates.

Accountability for clinical practice includes (1) the application of both entry and exit requirements for candidates; (2) candidates’ demonstration of content, pedagogical, and professional knowledge aligned with standards; (3) candidates’ demonstration of proficiencies in early field experiences; (4) candidates’ application of the skills, knowledge, and professional dispositions defined by the unit in its conceptual framework, including the capacity to have a positive effect on P–12 student learning; and (5) candidates’ demonstration of skills for working with colleagues, parents and families, and communities. The unit and its school partners use diverse assessment approaches to evaluate candidates.

Candidates are expected to study and practice in settings that include diverse populations, students with exceptionalities, and students of different ages. They are placed in clinical settings at grade levels and in the subjects or school roles (e.g., counselor) for which they are preparing. Candidate learning is integrated into the clinical setting. Scheduling, use of time, and resources support clinical faculty and allow candidates to participate as teachers, professional educators, and learners in the school setting.

Standard 4: Diversity

The unit designs, implements, and evaluates curriculum and provides experiences for candidates to acquire and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Assessments indicate that candidates can demonstrate and apply proficiencies related to diversity. Experiences provided for candidates include working with diverse populations, including higher education and P–12 school faculty, candidates, and students in P–12 schools.

4a. DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM AND EXPERIENCES

UNACCEPTABLE

The unit has not articulated candidate proficiencies related to diversity identified in the unit’s conceptual framework. The curriculum and field experiences for the preparation of educators do not prepare candidates to work effectively with diverse populations, including English language learners and students with exceptionalities. Candidates do not understand the importance of diversity in teaching and learning. They are not developing skills for incorporating diversity into their teaching and are not able to establish a classroom and school climate that values diversity. Assessments of candidate proficiencies do not include data on candidates’ ability to incorporate multiple perspectives into their teaching or service, develop lessons or services for students with different learning styles, accommodate linguistically and culturally diverse students and students with exceptionalities, and communicate effectively with diverse populations.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit clearly articulates proficiencies related to diversity identified in the unit’s conceptual framework that candidates are expected to develop during their professional programs. Curriculum and field experiences provide a well grounded framework for understanding diversity, including English language learners and students with exceptionalities. Candidates are aware of different learning styles and adapt instruction or services appropriately for all students, including linguistically and culturally diverse students and students with exceptionalities. Candidates connect lessons, instruction, or services to students’ experiences and cultures. They communicate with students and families in ways that demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and gender differences. Candidates incorporate multiple perspectives in the subject matter being taught or services being provided. They develop a classroom and school climate that values diversity. Candidates demonstrate classroom behaviors that are consistent with the ideas of fairness and the belief that all students can learn. Candidate proficiencies related to diversity are assessed, and the data are used to provide feedback to candidates for improving their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping students from diverse populations learn.

TARGET

Curriculum, field experiences, and clinical practice promote candidates’ development of knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions related to diversity identified in the unit’s conceptual framework. They are based on well developed knowledge bases for, and conceptualizations of, diversity and inclusion so that candidates can apply them effectively in schools. Candidates learn to contextualize teaching and draw effectively on representations from the students’ own experiences and cultures. They challenge students toward cognitive complexity and engage all students, including English language learners and students with exceptionalities, through instructional conversation. Candidates and faculty regularly review candidate assessment data on candidates’ ability to work with all students and develop a plan for improving their practice and the institution’s programs.

4b. EXPERIENCES WORKING WITH DIVERSE FACULTY

UNACCEPTABLE

Candidates in conventional or distance learning programs interact with professional education faculty, faculty from other units, and/or school faculty who are from one gender group or are members of only one ethnic/racial group.[16] Professional education and school faculty have limited knowledge and experiences related to diversity. The unit has not demonstrated good-faith efforts to recruit and maintain male and female faculty from diverse ethnic/racial groups.

ACCEPTABLE

Candidates in conventional and distance learning programs interact with professional education faculty, faculty from other units, and/or school faculty, both male and female, from at least two ethnic/racial groups.[17] Faculty with whom candidates work in professional education classes and clinical practice have knowledge and experiences related to preparing candidates to work with diverse student populations, including English language learners and students with exceptionalities. Affirmation of the value of diversity is shown through good-faith efforts to increase or maintain faculty diversity.

TARGET

Candidates in conventional and distance learning programs interact with professional education faculty, faculty in other units, and school faculty from a broad range of diverse groups. Higher education and school faculty with whom candidates work throughout their preparation program are knowledgeable about and sensitive to preparing candidates to work with diverse students, including students with exceptionalities.

4c. EXPERIENCES WORKING WITH DIVERSE CANDIDATES

UNACCEPTABLE

Candidates engage in professional education experiences in conventional or distance learning programs with candidates who are from one gender group or from the same socioeconomic group or ethnic/racial group.[18] Unit activities for candidates do not encourage or support the involvement of candidates from diverse populations. The unit has not demonstrated good-faith efforts to increase or maintain a pool of candidates, both male and female, from diverse socioeconomic and ethnic/racial groups.

ACCEPTABLE

Candidates engage in professional education experiences in conventional and distance learning programs with male and female candidates from different socioeconomic groups, and at least two ethnic/racial groups.[19] They work together on committees and education projects related to education and the content areas. Affirmation of the value of diversity is shown through good-faith efforts the unit makes to increase or maintain a pool of candidates, both male and female, from diverse socioeconomic and ethnic/racial groups.

TARGET

Candidates engage in professional education experiences in conventional and distance learning programs with candidates from the broad range of diverse groups. The active participation of candidates from diverse cultures and with different experiences is solicited, valued, and promoted in classes, field experiences, and clinical practice. Candidates reflect on and analyze these experiences in ways that enhance their development and growth as professionals.

4d. EXPERIENCES WORKING WITH DIVERSE STUDENTS IN P–12 SCHOOLS

UNACCEPTABLE

In conventional or distance learning programs, not all candidates participate in field experiences or clinical practices with exceptional students and students from diverse ethnic/racial, gender, language, and socioeconomic groups.[20] The experiences do not help candidates reflect on diversity or develop skills for having a positive effect on student learning for all students.

ACCEPTABLE

Field experiences or clinical practice for both conventional and distance learning programs provide experiences with male and female P–12 students from different socioeconomic groups and at least two ethnic/racial groups.[21] Candidates also work with English language learners and students with disabilities during some of their field experiences and/or clinical practice to develop and practice their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for working with all students. Feedback from peers and supervisors helps candidates reflect on their ability to help all students learn.

TARGET

Extensive and substantive field experiences and clinical practices for both conventional and distance learning programs are designed to encourage candidates to interact with exceptional students and students from a broad range of diverse groups. The experiences help candidates confront issues of diversity that affect teaching and student learning and develop strategies for improving student learning and candidates’ effectiveness as teachers.

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

America’s classrooms are becoming increasingly diverse; over 40 percent of the students in P–12 classrooms are students of color. Twenty percent of the students have at least one foreign-born parent, many with native languages other than English and from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. Growing numbers of students are classified as having disabilities. At the same time, teachers of color are less than 20 percent of the teaching force. As a result, most students do not have the opportunity to benefit from a diverse teaching force. Therefore, all teacher candidates must develop proficiencies for working effectively with students and families from diverse populations and with exceptionalities to ensure that all students learn. Regardless of whether they live in areas with great diversity, candidates must develop knowledge of diversity in the United States and the world, professional dispositions that respect and value differences, and skills for working with diverse populations.

One of the goals of this standard is the development of educators who can help all students learn or support their learning through their professional roles in schools. This goal requires educators who can reflect multicultural and global perspectives that draw on the histories, experiences, and representations of students and families from diverse populations. Therefore, the unit has the responsibility to provide opportunities for candidates to understand diversity and equity in the teaching and learning process. Coursework, field experiences, and clinical practice must be designed to help candidates understand the influence of culture on education and acquire the ability to develop meaningful learning experiences for all students. Candidates learn about exceptionalities and inclusion, English language learners and language acquisition, ethnic/racial cultural and linguistic differences, and gender differences, and the impact of these factors on learning. Proficiencies, including those related to professional dispositions and diversity, are drawn from the standards of the profession, state, and institution. Candidates are helped to understand the potential impact of discrimination based on race, class, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and language on students and their learning. Proficiencies related to diversity are identified in the unit’s conceptual framework. They are clear to candidates and are assessed as part of the unit’s assessment system.

Field experiences and clinical practice support the development of educators who can apply their knowledge of diversity, including exceptionalities, to work in schools with all students. They provide opportunities for candidates to reflect on their observations and practices in schools and communities with students and families from diverse ethnic/racial, language, gender, and socioeconomic groups. Clinical faculty design learning experiences for candidates to help them process diversity concepts and provide feedback to them about their performance. Teachers in advanced programs are expected to complete field experiences in educational settings with diverse populations.

A cohort of candidates and faculty from diverse groups informs the unit’s curriculum, pedagogy, and field experiences in culturally meaningful ways. Diverse faculty and peers assist candidates in addressing teaching and learning from multiple perspectives and different life experiences. It provides for different voices in the professional development and work of the education profession. The greater range of cultural backgrounds and experiences among faculty and candidates enhances understanding of diversity. In this regard, the unit recruits, admits or hires, and retains candidates and faculty from diverse populations. A plan that is monitored and revised regularly may provide guidance in ensuring and maintaining diverse representation.

Candidates have the opportunity to interact with adults, children, and youth from their own and other ethnic/racial cultures throughout their college careers, and particularly in their professional preparation programs. Candidates, higher education faculty, school faculty, and P–12 students with whom candidates work are from diverse ethnic/racial, language, gender, and socioeconomic groups. Candidates also have opportunities to work with adults and students with exceptionalities.

Standard 5: Faculty [22]Qualifications, Performance, and Development

Faculty are qualified and model best professional practices in scholarship, service, and teaching, including the assessment of their own effectiveness as related to candidate performance; they also collaborate with colleagues in the disciplines and schools. The unit systematically evaluates faculty performance and facilitates professional development.

5a. QUALIFIED FACULTY

UNACCEPTABLE

The majority of professional education faculty does not have earned doctorates. The professional education faculty do not have the expertise and contemporary professional experiences that qualify them for their assignments. Not all school faculty are licensed in the fields that they teach. Not all higher education clinical faculty have had contemporary professional experiences in school settings.

ACCEPTABLE

Professional education faculty have earned doctorates or exceptional expertise that qualifies them for their assignments. School faculty are licensed in the fields that they teach or supervise but often do not hold the doctorate. Clinical faculty from higher education have contemporary professional experiences in school settings at the levels that they supervise.

TARGET

Professional education faculty at the institution have earned doctorates or exceptional expertise, have contemporary professional experiences in school settings at the levels that they supervise, and are meaningfully engaged in related scholarship. Clinical faculty (higher education and school faculty) are licensed in the fields that they teach or supervise and are master teachers or well recognized for their competence in their field.

5b. MODELING BEST PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN TEACHING

UNACCEPTABLE

Professional education faculty have limited understanding of their fields. Faculty teaching provides candidates little engagement with content and does not help them develop the proficiencies outlined in professional, state, and institutional standards. Professional education faculty use a limited number of instructional strategies; these strategies do not reflect current research on teaching and learning. They seldom model the use of information technology in their own teaching. Few professional education faculty assess their own effectiveness as teachers. Many faculty members have not developed systems for assessing whether candidates in their classes or under their supervision are learning.

ACCEPTABLE

Professional education faculty have a thorough understanding of the content they teach. Teaching by professional education faculty helps candidates develop the proficiencies outlined in professional, state, and institutional standards and guides candidates in the application of research, theories, and current developments in their fields and in teaching. Professional education faculty value candidates’ learning and assess candidate performance. Their teaching encourages candidates’ development of reflection, critical thinking, problem solving, and professional dispositions. Professional education faculty use a variety of instructional strategies that reflect an understanding of different learning styles. They integrate diversity and technology throughout their teaching. They assess their own effectiveness as teachers, including the positive effects they have on candidates’ learning and performance.

TARGET

All professional education faculty have an in-depth understanding of their fields and are teacher scholars who integrate what is known about their content fields, teaching, and learning in their own instructional practice. They exhibit intellectual vitality in their sensitivity to critical issues. Teaching by the professional education faculty reflects the proficiencies outlined in professional, state, and institutional standards; incorporates appropriate performance assessments; and integrates diversity and technology throughout coursework, field experiences, and clinical practices. Professional education faculty value candidates’ learning and adjust instruction appropriately to enhance candidate learning. They understand assessment technology, use multiple forms of assessments in determining their effectiveness, and use the data to improve their practice. Many of the professional education faculty are recognized as outstanding teachers by candidates and peers across campus and in schools.

5c. MODELING BEST PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN SCHOLARSHIP

UNACCEPTABLE

Few professional education faculty are actively engaged in scholarly work that is appropriate for professionals preparing educators to work in schools and related to the missions of the unit and the institution.

ACCEPTABLE

Most professional education faculty demonstrate scholarly work in their fields of specialization. They are engaged in different types of scholarly work, based in part on the missions of their units and institutions.

TARGET

All professional education faculty demonstrate scholarly work related to teaching, learning, and their fields of specialization. Their scholarly work is driven by the missions of their units and institutions. They are actively engaged in inquiry that ranges from knowledge generation to exploration and questioning of the field to evaluating the effectiveness of a teaching approach.

5d. MODELING BEST PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN SERVICE

UNACCEPTABLE

Few professional education faculty are actively involved in service activities for the college or university. They are providing limited or no services to schools and demonstrate limited or no collaboration with faculty in other college or university units. Few if any of the faculty are actively engaged in professional associations or provide education-related services at the local, state, national, or international levels.

ACCEPTABLE

Most professional education faculty provide service to the college or university, school, and broader communities in ways that are consistent with the institution and unit’s mission. They collaborate with the professional world of practice in P–12 schools and with faculty in other college or university units to improve teaching, candidate learning, and the preparation of educators. They are actively involved in professional associations. They provide education-related services at the local, state, national, or international levels.

TARGET

All professional education faculty are actively engaged in dialogues about the design and delivery of instructional programs in both professional education and P–12 schools. They collaborate regularly and systematically with P–12 practitioners and with faculty in other college or university units. They are actively engaged in a community of learners. They provide leadership in the profession, schools, and professional associations at state, national, and international levels.

5e. UNIT EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION FACULTY PERFORMANCE

UNACCEPTABLE

The unit does not evaluate professional education faculty systematically and regularly. Evaluations that are conducted are not used to improve practice.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit conducts systematic and comprehensive evaluations of faculty teaching performance to enhance the competence and intellectual vitality of the professional education faculty. Evaluations of professional education faculty are used to improve the faculty’s teaching, scholarship and service.

TARGET

The unit’s systematic and comprehensive evaluation system includes regular and comprehensive reviews of the professional education faculty’s teaching, scholarship, service, collaboration with the professional community, and leadership in the institution and profession.

5f. UNIT FACILITATION OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

UNACCEPTABLE

Professional development is not related to faculty evaluations. The unit does not encourage faculty to engage in professional development activities.

ACCEPTABLE

Based upon needs identified in faculty evaluations, the unit provides opportunities for faculty to develop new knowledge and skills, especially as they relate to the conceptual framework, performance assessment, diversity, technology, and other emerging practices.

TARGET

The unit has policies and practices that encourage all professional education faculty to be continuous learners. Experienced professional education faculty mentor new faculty, providing encouragement and support for developing scholarly work around teaching, inquiry, and service.

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

Faculty in higher education and partner schools are critical to the development of high quality professional educators to staff the nation’s schools. They can introduce candidates to research and good practice that counter myths and misperceptions about teaching and learning. Through modeling of good teaching, they help candidates develop multiple teaching strategies to help all students learn. The intellectual vitality exhibited by faculty who are engaged in their work and student learning is important in setting the stage for continuous professional development by the candidates under their tutelage. Faculty know and understand the professional, state, and institutional standards identified in the unit’s conceptual framework and work to ensure that candidates master these standards.

Faculty make candidate and P–12 student learning central in their professional work. They are actively engaged as a community of learners and model good teaching. They inquire systematically into and reflect upon their own practice and are committed to lifelong professional development. Faculty provide leadership in developing, implementing, and evaluating preparation programs that embrace diversity and are rigorous, relevant, and grounded in theory, research, and best practice. They collaborate with members of the university and professional community to improve teaching, learning, and teacher education. They serve as advocates for high quality education for all students, public understanding of educational issues, and excellence and diversity in the education professions. They also contribute to improving the teacher education profession.[23] Faculty are actively involved in professional associations as shown through their provision of education-related service and leadership at the local, state, national, and international levels.

Professional education faculty are teacher scholars who value teaching and learning in their own work. They inquire into and contribute to one or more areas of scholarly work related to teaching, learning, or teacher education. They exhibit intellectual vitality in their teaching, scholarship, and service. Scholarship is broadly defined and extends beyond traditional research and publications. Scholarly inquiry may include application of knowledge, interpretation or integration of current research findings in new settings, and rigorous and systematic study of pedagogy. All scholarly inquiry includes submission of one’s work for professional review and evaluation by peers outside one’s own institution.

One of the roles of faculty is to be aware of new and developing research in their fields and emerging theories and practice. They are engaged in deepening understanding of research and practice that informs their work. Professional education faculty model the use of performance assessments in their own work. They are assessing the effects of their teaching on the learning of candidates and using their findings to strengthen their own practice. They are also expanding their knowledge of and skills related to diversity and exceptionalities and integrating these concepts in their teaching. They continue to develop their skills in using technology to facilitate their own professional work and to help candidates learn. Faculty participate in professional development activities through their own initiatives or those conducted, sponsored,
or arranged by the unit to enhance teaching competence and intellectual vitality.

The unit’s responsibility for the performance of professional education faculty includes systematic and comprehensive evaluations conducted by both candidates and peers. Evaluations are designed to collect data on the quality of faculty teaching, scholarly contributions, and service. They are used to improve faculty performance through the provision and support of professional development activities.

Standard 6: Unit Governance and Resources

The unit has the leadership, authority, budget, personnel, facilities, and resources, including information technology resources, for the preparation of candidates to meet professional, state, and institutional standards.

6a. UNIT LEADERSHIP AND AUTHORITY

UNACCEPTABLE

Unit leadership and authority arrangements do not result in coherent planning, delivery, or operation of programs for the preparation of teachers and other school personnel. The unit does not effectively manage or coordinate all programs so that candidates meet standards. The unit does not effectively engage cooperating P–12 teachers and other practicing educators in program design, implementation, and evaluation. The unit’s recruiting and admission practices are not described clearly or consistently in publications and catalogs. Academic calendars, catalogs, publications, grading policies, and advertising are inaccurate, inconsistent, and/or out of date. The unit does not ensure that candidates have access to student services such as advising or counseling. The unit is not recognized as a leader on campus or within the educational community.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit has the leadership and authority to plan, deliver, and operate coherent programs of study. The unit effectively manages or coordinates all programs so that their candidates are prepared to meet standards. The unit’s recruiting and admission practices are described clearly and consistently in publications and catalogs. Academic calendars, catalogs, publications, grading policies, and advertising are accurate and current. The unit ensures that candidates have access to student services such as advising and counseling. Faculty involved in the preparation of educators, P–12 practitioners, and other members of the professional community participate in program design, implementation, and evaluation of the unit and its programs. The unit provides a mechanism and facilitates collaboration between unit faculty and faculty in other units of the institution involved in the preparation of professional educators.

TARGET

The unit provides the leadership for effectively coordinating all programs at the institution designed to prepare education professionals to work in P–12 schools. The unit’s recruiting and admission practices are described clearly and consistently in publications and catalogs. Academic calendars, catalogs, publications, grading policies, and advertising are accurate and current. The unit ensures that candidates have access to student services such as advising and counseling. The unit and other faculty collaborate with P–12 practitioners in program design, delivery, and evaluation of the unit and its programs. Colleagues in other units at the institution involved in the preparation of professional educators, school personnel, and other organizations recognize the unit as a leader. The unit provides professional development on effective teaching for faculty in other units of the institution.

6b. UNIT BUDGET

UNACCEPTABLE

Budgetary allocations to the unit, either in total or in comparison with other units on campus with clinical components or similar units at other campuses, do not support programs at levels necessary for candidates to meet standards.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit receives sufficient budgetary allocations at least proportional to other units on campus with clinical components or similar units at other campuses to provide programs that prepare candidates to meet standards. The budget adequately supports on-campus and clinical work essential for preparation of professional educators.

TARGET

Unit budgetary allocations permit faculty teaching, scholarship, and service that extend beyond the unit to P–12 education and other programs in the institution. The budget for curriculum, instruction, faculty, clinical work, scholarship, etc., supports high-quality work within the unit and its school partners.

6c. PERSONNEL

UNACCEPTABLE

Unit workload policies including class-size and online course delivery do not permit faculty members to be engaged effectively in teaching, scholarship, assessment, advisement, P–12 collaboration, and service. Faculty loads for teaching on campus and online generally exceed 12 hours for undergraduate teaching and nine hours for graduate teaching per semester or the equivalent. Supervision of clinical practice generally exceeds 18 candidates for each full-time equivalent faculty member per semester or the equivalent. The unit’s use of part-time faculty and graduate assistants contributes to the lack of program coherence and integrity. An inadequate number of support personnel limits faculty effectiveness and candidate progress toward meeting standards. Opportunities for professional development, including training in the use of technology, are limited, leading to an adverse effect on program quality.

ACCEPTABLE

Workload policies, including class-size and online course delivery, allow faculty members to be effectively engaged in teaching, scholarship, assessment, advisement, collaborative work in P–12 schools, and service. Faculty loads for teaching on campus and online generally do not exceed 12 hours for undergraduate teaching and nine hours for graduate teaching per semester or the equivalent. Supervision of clinical practice does not generally exceed 18 candidates for each full-time equivalent faculty member per semester or the equivalent. The unit makes appropriate use of full-time, part-time, and clinical faculty as well as graduate assistants so that program coherence and integrity are assured. The unit provides an adequate number of support personnel so that programs can prepare candidates to meet standards. The unit provides adequate resources and opportunities for professional development of faculty, including training in the use of technology.

TARGET

Workload policies and practices permit and encourage faculty not only to be engaged in a wide range of professional activities, including teaching, scholarship, assessment, advisement, work in schools, and service, but also to professionally contribute on a community, state, regional, or national basis. Formal policies and procedures have been established to include online course delivery in determining faculty load. The unit’s use of part-time faculty and of graduate teaching assistants is purposeful and employed to strengthen programs, including the preparation of teaching assistants. Clinical faculty are included in the unit as valued colleagues in preparing educators. Unit provision of support personnel significantly enhances the effectiveness of faculty in their teaching and mentoring of candidates. The unit supports professional development activities that engage faculty in dialogue and skill development related to emerging theories and practices.

6d. UNIT FACILITIES

UNACCEPTABLE

Campus and school facilities are not functional or well maintained to support candidate progress toward meeting standards. They do not support preparation of candidates to use current technologies.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit has adequate campus and school facilities to support candidates in meeting standards. The facilities support faculty and candidate use of information technology in instruction.

TARGET

The unit has outstanding facilities on campus and with partner schools to support candidates in meeting standards. Facilities support the most recent developments in technology that allow faculty to model the use of technology and candidates to practice its use for instructional purposes.

6e. UNIT RESOURCES INCLUDING TECHNOLOGY

UNACCEPTABLE

Allocations of resources across programs are uneven in ways that impede candidates’ ability to meet standards. Few or no resources are available for developing and implementing the unit’s assessment plan. Information technology resources are so limited that candidates are unable to experience use of information technology. Professional education faculty and candidates do not have access to sufficient and current library and curricular resources or electronic information. Resources for distance learning programs do not provide sufficient reliability, speed, or confidentiality of connection in the delivery system.

ACCEPTABLE

The unit allocates resources across programs to prepare candidates to meet standards for their fields. It provides adequate resources to develop and implement the unit’s assessment plan. The unit has adequate information technology resources to support faculty and candidates. Professional education faculty and candidates have access both to sufficient and current library and curricular resources and electronic information. Resources for distance learning programs are sufficient to provide reliability, speed, and confidentiality of connection in the delivery system.

TARGET

The unit aggressively and successfully secures resources to support high-quality and exemplary programs and projects to ensure that candidates meet standards. The development and implementation of the unit’s assessment system is well funded. The unit serves as an information technology resource in education beyond the education programs—to the institution, community, and other institutions. Faculty and candidates have access to exemplary library, curricular, and electronic information resources that serve not only the unit but also a broader constituency. Resources for distance learning programs provide exceptional reliability, speed, and confidentiality of connection in the delivery system.

SUPPORTING EXPLANATION:

The unit performs the key leadership role in governance and management of curriculum, instruction, and resources for the preparation of professional educators. The unit is responsible for the quality of all school personnel prepared at the institution regardless of where the program is administratively located within the institution. Thus, units are expected to directly manage or coordinate all programs offered at the institution for the initial and continuing preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel. In this regard, they work with colleagues in arts and sciences and other units across campus as well as educators in P–12 schools.

The unit has designed, established, and maintained a structure and governance system for planning, delivering, and evaluating programs that includes school practitioners as well as faculty and administrators
in other units of the institution. A key element of that system is the development and implementation of an assessment system that includes the gathering and use of candidate performance data, as described under Standard 2, to ensure that candidates meet standards.

The unit and its faculty have created a work climate that promotes intellectual vitality, best teaching practice, and scholarship. Policies and assignments allow faculty to be involved effectively in teaching, scholarship, and service. Faculty load must consider the amount of time required for online delivery of courses and course components and provision of electronic support to candidates. Faculty are actively engaged in schools and with teachers and other school personnel to design, evaluate, and deliver preparation programs. Assignments provide time to collaborate with school and other college or university faculty.

The unit maintains an adequate number of personnel and sufficient resources to ensure that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional standards. Programs for the initial and continuing preparation of educators require work on campus, in school settings, and sometimes in community agencies, ending with a culminating experience of student teaching or an internship. Clinical work in education, like other professional fields, requires adequate resources. It involves school as well as college or university faculty in teaching, providing feedback, and coaching to ensure that candidates are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions expected in professional, state, and institutional standards. Sufficient resources, including information technology resources, are necessary to offer all of the programs at the institution that prepare educators to work in schools, including the delivery of high-quality field experiences and clinical practice.

Notes

1. At its discretion, the unit may operate with a single framework for all programs or a different framework for each or some of its programs.

2. Candidates include persons preparing to teach, teachers who are continuing their professional development, and persons preparing for other professional roles in schools such as principals, school psychologists, and school library media specialists.

3. “All students” includes students with exceptionalities and of different ethnic, racial, gender, sexual orientation, language, religious, socioeconomic, and regional/geographic origins.

4. Institutional standards are reflected in the unit’s conceptual framework and include candidate proficiencies.

5. At its discretion, the unit may operate with a single framework for all programs or a different framework for each or some of its programs.

6. Candidates include persons preparing to teach, teachers who are continuing their professional development, and persons preparing for other professional roles in schools such as principals, school psychologists, and school library media specialists.

7. “All students” includes students with exceptionalities and of different ethnic, racial, gender, sexual orientation, language, religious, socioeconomic, and regional/geographic origins.

8. Pedagogical knowledge for other school professionals, such as librarians and reading specialists, who teach on a regular basis can be found in the professional standards for those fields.

9. Professional standards for the programs listed and directions for preparing documentation can be downloaded from NCATE’s website: www.ncate.org. A list of programs with professional standards can also be found on the NCATE website.

10. This list is based on the standards of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). The complete INTASC document includes knowledge, professional dispositions, and performance related to each principle. It is available on the website of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), www.ccsso.org/intasc.html.

11. Information about what candidates should understand and be able to apply related to the social, historical, and philosophical foundations of education may be obtained from the standards promulgated by the Council for Social Foundations of Education.

12. A physical, mental, or emotional condition, including gifted/talented abilities, that requires individualized instruction and/or other educational support or services.

13. Codes of ethics may be helpful in thinking about professional dispositions and are available from a number of professional associations, including the National Education Association (NEA) and the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC).

14. Additional information about the propositions and the National Board’s assessments for experienced teachers can be found on NBPTS’ website, www.nbpts.org.

15. NCATE’s professional standards for these fields and the directions for preparing documentation can be downloaded from its website, www.ncate.org. A list of programs with professional standards can be found on www.ncate.org. A list of programs with professional standards is appended to these unit standards.

16. Ethnic/racial groups expected for this element are those reported in the United States Census. They include Hispanics of any race, and for non-Hispanics only: American Indians/Alaskan Aleuts, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders, Whites, and two or more races.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Faculty refers to both professional education faculty who are employed by higher education institutions and P-12 school professionals who supervise clinical practices.

23. These expectations are drawn from the ‘Standards for Teacher Educators’ of the Association of Teacher Educators.


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